Function words

In mundeze, tool-words (conjunctions, adpositions, etc.) most often correspond to a word without a grammatical ending. Therefore, they often end with a consonant. Consequently, it can be difficult to pronounce a sequence of words: rest me (on my right); lif voy (on my left); upersat detaye (too many details); med vage (by train); dank tu (thanks to you); sop pede (on the foot)…

In this case, we use the grammatical ending –u:
restu me; lifu voy; upersatu detaye; medu vage; danku tu; sopu pede

topCoordinating conjunctions

may = but, whereas, while

u = or, either…or

ni = and

nio ne = nor, neither

sa = so, then, thus, so that, therefore

as = because, for

topOther function words


en = at, in (in the place of)

dom = at (at somebody’s house)

in = in, within, inside

ek, eku = out of, outside of

sop, sopu = on, above

sub, subu = under, beneath, below

mes = between, among

preen = in front of, before

posen = behind

tuk, tuku = against (physically)

ru = around, about

ner = near

laten = beside, alongside, next to

tel = far from


da = from, since
na = to, toward(s)

per = through, by

nal = across, over, to the other side of

uper = beyond, past


os = when, at the time when, as

da, esda = as soon as, since, from

hata = until, till, up to, unto, for, in (completion time)

samos = while, whereas, as

duros = during, as long as

preos = before, in less than, within

preoso = ago, before, previously

posos = after

pososo = later, after

ru = around, about

  • me itesi ru bia hore = I’ll leave around two o’clock / I left around two o’clock
  • me itesi ru bi hore = I left about two hours ago / I will leave in about two hours


ki = if, whether

sis = if, in case, provided that, in the event, in so far as…

hata sis, dedas = despite, in spite of, notwithstanding

sen sis = unless, except

a = of

o = like, as, such as

  • í, o tu voli = Do what you want / Do as you like

sam = like, following the example of

so = as

sim = as if, as though

med, medu = by means of, by

per = by, from (agent / passive)

lu = according to, along, by, following, in accordance with

dan = than, with regard to, compared with

om = in (quantity), per (distribution)

ko = between (reciprocity, relation)

kon = with (comitatifve)

hata = including, moreover, in addition…

sen = without, except, other than, apart from, besides…

da = from, of, made up of

tem = about, concerning, over, regarding, as to, as for…

por = for, towards, to, as regards, in favour of…

dank, danku = thanks to

ri = against (opposition), opposed to

vis = instead of

das = because, given that, since

nas = to, in order to, so as

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *